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Video Introduction to Venezuela


 VENEZUELA IN THE WORLD 

Venezuela is located in the American continent, to the north of America of the South. It is 
the only South American country that possesses coasts open to the sea Caribbean and to the 
ocean Atlantic, with an extension of costs that goes from Castilletes to the promontory of it 
Gave birth to in the sea Caribbean. With the ocean Atlantic extends from the promontory of 
it Gave birth to until the coast of the Guayana Esequiba. This position locates it in an axis 
of communications among different points of the continent, being connected to the big 
commercial nets thanks to its equidistancia with the main centers of the western 
hemisphere, so much of America of the North, as of Europe and África. Venezuela is, to 
oneself time, a Caribbean, Atlantic, Andean and amazon country. 

Venezuela, name of 
Appears for the first time, written Veneçuela, in the map that the Spanish cartographer Juan 
of the Thing drew in 1500 when returning of the trip that, under the orders of Alonso of 
Ojeda, he had carried out in 1499 along the costs of the current Republic of Venezuela. In 
this map that name designates the area of the gulf of Venezuela, located among the 
peninsulas of Paraguaná and of the Peasant. Traditionally the paternity of that name has 
been come attributing to the Italian navigator Américo Vespucio who also participated in 
the exploration of Ojeda; however, it should be kept in mind that in its letter of The four 
sailings, printed in Latin, by Martín Waldseemüller in 1507, Vespucci compares the 
populations indigenous palafíticas with Venice («…pagum aut villam super aquas, ut 
Venetiae…») but it doesn't use the word Venezuela neither the expression «small Venice». 
On the other hand, in a declaration given in 1512, Ojeda says that after the admiral 
Christopher Columbus was him who traveled and he discovered the coast «…hasta the gulf 
of the Pearls… and of there it was discovering that entire coast of the mainland from the 
Friars until in even of the islands of the Giants and the gulf of Venice that is in the 
mainland and the county of Coquivacoa…» it is certain that the view of one or several 
towns built natives on the water by means of platforms sustained by stakes (palafitos) he 
suggested Ojeda, the Thing and Vespucci the comparison with Venice. However, the use of 
the affective diminutive «Venezuela» (derived evidently of the name of the Italian city) it 
must award with more property to Juan of the Thing who included it in their map, or to the 
boss of the expedition, Ojeda, without this excludes the possible participation of Vespucci. 
In 1528, in the capitulation in which emperor Carlos V gave the Welser the exploitation of 
the lands that you/they are included between the End of the Candle and Maracapana, is 
spoken of «…las lands of Venezuela and his Counties…» so that Ambrosio Alfínger 
arrived to Choir in 1529 as the first governor from Venezuela. The name of Venezuela had 
papal consecration in a bull of Clemente VII of June 21 1531 in which believes the 
Bishopric of Choir. During the XVI and XVII centuries it is used Government of 
Venezuela or county of Venezuela indistinctly to refer to the territory of variable limits that 
was adjacent with the county from New Andalusia to the east and it reached for the 
occident until the End of The Candle 

Basic DATA 

Location 
North of America of the South. 

Limits 
North: Territorial seas of Republic Of the Dominican Republic, The Antilles, Puerto Rico 
and Virgin Islands, Martinique, Guadalupe, and Trinidad and Tobago. 
South: Brazil and Colombia. 
This: Ocean Atlantic and Guyana. 
West: Colombia. 

Coordinated 
North latitude: Among the parallel ones 0°38´53´´, in the birth of the river Arari (state 
Amazons) and the 12°11´46´´ in the end of San Román (state Falcon), more northern point 
of the continental part of the country. The Island of Ave is a key factor in the extension of 
the limits of territorial waters. 

Latitude west: Among the meridians 58°10´00´´, point located in the oriental end of the 
river Esequibo, in the Guayana Esequiba (Area in reclamation) and the 73°25´00´´, in the 
birth of the Intermediate river (state Zulia). Their insular territories extend northernly to 
Island from Ave to 15°40´33´´. 

Surface 
916 667 km2. 

Extension of coasts 
4 006 km. 

Total population 
22 105 265 inhabitants  

Division territorial politician 
23 States, a Federal District, 34 federal Dependences and an Area in Reclamation. 

CAPITAL CITIES

Caracas
The amazing Venezuelan capital, a collage of "trees", feeways and high tech buildings, offers to the tourist
its history as another tourism attrac-tion which is added to the many which Venezuela has. The temperature stays between 15º in December and 28º in Au-gust. Moderns Caracas can be divided into various sectors. The downtown area is the city's historical and nerve center.

Begining the bridge that takes you to Plaza Venezuela, a ver-satile, provocative city unfolds before yours eyes. Arts galle-ries, office buildings, adversiting agencies and bussinesses of all sizes line the principal avenues.

The Metro de Cracas, whic covers most of the city, is the prefered transportation of Caraqueños. Among the sites of historical interest which exist in Caracas, some are still: Panteón Nacional, Escuela Superior de Música José Angel Lamas, santa Capilla, Plaza Bolívar, Casa Amarilla, Catedral de Caracas, Museo Sacro and the Casa Natal del Libertador Simón Bolívar.

Maracaibo
Best known as the capital of Zulia, the state that pumps most of Venezuela's oil wealth, Maracaibo's tourist attractions tend to be overlooked. Nevertheless, its warm-hearted, hospitable people take
pride in showing visitors their vibrant, colorful city. Both colonial and modern, Maracaibo offers the the latest in luxury hotels and shopping malls side by side with the old-time charm and culinary skills of traditional neighborhoods and restau-rants. No need to stay in town, either - visitors can enjoy excur-sions
to enchanting Sinamaica Lagoon, San Carlos Island and the natural lightning bolts on the Catatumbo River that have to be seen to be believed. Old town Maracaibo gives the sightseer a
chance to stroll back to the beginning of the century and savor the lifestyle and customs of a bygone Venezuela.

The homes, streets and shops belong to yester year around any corner is a time-honored
saloon, a turn-of-the-century house serving typical food and sweets of the region, even a barber shop for men only.
Maracaibo is also a modern, multifaceted powerhouse that is not quaint at all, with de-luxe
hotels, gourmet cuisine, frenetic night life and shoppíng malls with all the major brands. Its boast Venezuela's
first Palace of Events built to international standards for conferences, seminars and exhibitions, one more example of the city's leading role in the life of the na-tion.
Those born to shop can happily spend whole days doing Maracaibos first-rate malls with their sophisticated
shops and food fairs. Not to be missed are the Galeria, Costa Verde, La Chinita and the newest and trendiest,
Lagomall.

Barquisimeto
A tour through its colonial past reveals pre-cious archaeological finds of long-gone civi-lizations.
Cheerful and brimming with cultural life, Barquisimeto also offers good buys for the living room with its craftmanship and music. And it is a grat eating place too: Lara State is the home of the famous Caro-ran
goat and beef dishes. El Tocuyo hig-way- just before the Carore exit-one finds Tintorero, known for its woven hammocks, tapestries and covers. Further South lies Sa-nare, a farming center with many touristics stops and an ideal place for buying fresh vegetables. Close by its fumaroles, the Yacambú dam is also located here. Eit-her
directly from Quíbor or taking a detour at Sanare, the next stop is El Tocuyo. Carora is near, the most importan feature in this cultural and cattle ranching center is its colonial zone.

Cuidad Bolívar
With its picturesque location on a rocky elevation on the southern banks of the Orinoco River, Ciudad Bolívar, the capital of Venezue-la's largest state. The beginnings of Ciudad Bolívar date from the 16th century. The heart of Ciudad Bolívar still largely conserves the look of the past.

Appreciate the many interesting architectural details and unique geographically influenced construction, check out
the shops, visit museums and historic structures -all within easy walking distance of the Mirador. On the south side of Paseo Orinoco, note the unique vintage commercial buil-dings with deep enclosed upper balconies, supported by
tall columns and forming a protective roof over the side-walk which provides welcome shade for pedestrians (sin-ce
average temperature is 28º C). In the Plaza Bolívar, de-clared a national monument and focal point of historical
events in this city, along with the customary statue of Simón Bolívar are five allegorical figures representing each
of the countries he liberated from Spanish rule: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolívar, Colombia, and Peru.
Some 10 blocks south of the plaza is Fortín Zamuro. Nearby, facing Plaza Miranda is the Centro de las Artes.
Erected in 1870, in its "former life" it served variously as a hospital, military barracks, jail, prefecture, and even the
capitol building. It now holds changing expositions as well as offices of the sta-te's cultural Department. On a more contemporary note, not to be missed is the Museo de Arte Moderno Jesús Soto. The first stage was designed by the legendary Venezuelan ar-chitect, Carlos Raúl Villanueva, and Edgar Parra responsible for the second part. The focus of the complex's galleries is works of Jesús Soto, world-famous for his kinetic art. He was born in this city.
In addition to Soto's creations, there are excellent representations of the most important of his contemporaries working with the same concepts. They also host changing shows of artists with distinct styles.

Valencia
Valencia is the capital of an important Venezuelan State located at the northern side of Venezuela, Carabo-bo,
where took place the Batalla de Carabobo, which sealed the Independence of Venezuela. And to honor this historic event was created El ParqueCampo de Carabobo in the same place where the battle took place. This park is located 18 km away from Valencia and houses an important monument called Batalla de Carabobo con su Arco de
Triunfo and created by the Spanish sculptor Antonio Rodríguez Villar. The park also houses a viewpoint
from where it is possible to admire the plains where the battle took place and has a Centro de Interés Tu-rístico
(Tourist office) offering tourist services.

Carabobo also houses other interesting parks such as Metropolitano de Valencia, which is perfect to relax and rest; Recreacional del Sur, where all kind of expositions take place; Turístico Guataparo, which is lo-cated
at the shores of Guataparo Lake and offers cabins, wonderful gardens and motor boat services; Cristóbal
Mendoza, which stands out because of its sparkling fountains and its sun-dial.Valencia's lake is the second in ex-tension in Venezuela and houses several islands such as Tacarigua, Chambergo, Otamo,
El Horno, and El Fraile. And Carabobo's spas and beaches are also very popular among tourists.
Palma Sola and Playa Blanca are located in Puerto Cabello. The former is a vast beach offering tourists
all the services they need to have a comfortable stay and to practice water sports. The second is a public
beach offering restaurants and motor boats. Quizandal, a vast public beach, is located very near to the aforementioned beaches. And not so far is Guaicamacuto, perfect to enjoy of a sunny day, and Gañango, where it is possible to take motor boats. And Canaima, located in the road Palito-Morón, houses places offering accommodation, food, locker rooms, and motor boat services.


Official currency 
The bolivar. 

Official language 
Castellano. 27 indigenous groups that you/they speak their own language exist. 

Religion 
Cult freedom (the Catholic religion prevails). 

Government's system 
Representative democracy. The country has been developed as a centralized State whose 
government is exercised from the capital of the Republic, where they concentrate the public 
powers (Executive, Legislative and Judicial). For his operation it is a democratic and social 
State of right. The states that conform it have as first authority a governor. The municipal 
administration is represented by its maximum authority, the mayors who jointly with the 
governors and the representatives of the Assemblies legislativas are chosen, the same as the 
president of the Republic, for universal, direct and secret voting. In the Federal District the 
governor is of free appointment on the part of the president. The federal Dependences are 
subordinate to the National Executive. 

Economy 
It rotates around the external trade, which is largely carried out through marine transport. 
The development of the economy has been sustained in the activity productive oil 
company, what characterizes it like capitalism financier's economy. It possesses 
considerable oil, gas, carboniferous locations and an enormous hydroelectric potential that 
it allows him to have full energy independence. It has mineral resources of great economic 
and strategic value as gold, iron and aluminum; besides enough reservations of water and 
floors of agricultural and forest vocation. Other important industries are: construction 
materials, textile, brewery, prosecution of foods, autopartes, telecommunications, massive 
consumption, consultancy and consultantship, television production, chemical, fármacos, 
publicity and editorial. Their scenarios paisajísticos of tourist projections and the existence 
of other non conventional resources that are undeveloped or sub-exploited, transform it into 
a privileged region. 

Climate

An astonishing climatic variety exists (27 areas), defined by the plains with plane reliefs to 
wavy, the upper-class Andean mountains of perpetual snow and the Guianese plateaus. The 
heights on the level of the sea oscillate between 0 and 100 meters, generally in the coastal 
areas and the plain of the Orinoco, until the highest summit, corresponding to the pick 
Bolivar in the Andean mountain range with 5 007 meters on the level of the sea. The 
temperature varies from less 0 °C in this geographical area, until more than 26 °C in almost 
the whole country. The precipitations are scarce in some areas with annual, or very 
abundant 300-600 mm with more than 3 000 mm/año in the south of the territory. They are 
distinguished only two stations: a rainy one (of seven months) and another dry one (of five 
months). 

Geography 

Central mountain range 
Of tectonic origin, it includes the serranía of the Coast (mountain range of the Costa) that 
has their biggest altitude in the pick Naiguatá with 2 765 m and that of the Interior that 
harbors to the pick Turimiquire with 2 595 m. The formation of these processes gave origin 
to depressions of great magnitude: the basin of the lake of Valencia and the valleys of the 
Tuy, Caracas, Aragua and Windward. Hillsides of variable inclination, sedimentary valleys, 
channels of rivers and gulches, sharp costs with cliffs and beaches with waters of low to 
medium depth, as well as high mountains, conform this area. The high Plains are to the 
south. The piedemonte, transition sector that connects the south flank of the serranía of the 
Interior with the central high Plains, is furrowed by numerous geologic flaws. 

Oriental mountain range 
The phenomenon that gave origin to the basin of Cariaco separated to the mountain range 
Caribbean of the north of Venezuela, for that reason is defined the Central system and the 
Oriental. The peninsulas of Araya to the west and it Gave birth to the east, they are united 
by an itsmo with more than 80 km of width and they are skirted to the south by the gulves 
of Cariaco and it Gave birth to. The serranía, in which highlights the solid of Turimiquire, 
(2 600 m) and other mountains that the 1 500 m doesn't overcome are continuation of the 
serranía of the Interior of the Central mountain range, which finishes in Caripe, where is the 
most famous formation cárstica: the Cave of the Guácharo. Sea inside the multitude of 
islands highlights. In the coastal tract that gives to the west of the peninsula of Araya the 
salines of the same name they are located. 

System coriano 
The relief is not very high, with altitudes between 500 and 1 700 m. The biggest territorial 
extension is the mountainous system Falcon-Lara and the piedemonte Falcon-Zulia. The 
first one has to the west the mountain of Siruma that serves from limit to the basin of the 
lake of Maracaibo. To the foot of the serranía Baragua the depression of Carora is and in 
the southern slopes of the serranías Matatere and Bobare the depression of Barquisimeto is 
had. The coastal portions understand the plains of the north coast that it includes the 
peninsula of Paraguaná. Here is the itsmo of The Dunes, the only desert of the country, 
formed by a narrow fringe of dunes and a beach to leeward, on the golfete of Choir. Be also 
had the salines of The Cumaraguas and Bajarigua. 

Lake of Maracaibo 
The lake of Maracaibo, a bay with very narrow entrance, is the most extensive in 
suramérica. It possesses a variety of landscapes: to the west plane, wavy lands and accident 
victims prevail. In the western end a landscape exists with abrupt and mountainous wavy 
and other relief in the serranía of Perijá. To the south they are the plains of alluvial deposits 
on the depression caused by the rising Andean orográfico with very plane topography, 
explayamiento plains, deposition pale and muddy areas. The convergence climatic cause 
the Lightning of the Catatumbo that is observed in the nights to the Southwest of the lake. 
San Carlos' islands, Toas and it Undermined they close the strait of Maracaibo. 

Walk them 
It is a continuation of you Walk them Colombian that when arriving to the Knot of 
Pamplona (Colombia) forks in two chains: The mountain of Perijá and the mountain range 
of Merida or of you Walk them Venezuelans. The separation between the Colombian 
Oriental mountain range and that of Merida is demarcated by the depression of the Táchira. 
A long tectonic fissure divides to you Walk them in two parallel blocks: the mountain of 
the North or of The Breech and the mountain of Merida. In this last one they are the most 
important heights in the country: the pick Bolivar (5 007 m) and the Humboldt (4 940 m). 
The fluvial excavations and the filling of the depressions caused deyección cones, fluvial 
valleys and alluvial terraces. In the high mountains they meet the valleys of glacial origin 
with imposing lagoons. 

The plains 
More than the fourth part of the Venezuelan territory it is included in the denomination of " 
Plain ". it is immense surfaces of almost plane relief that extend uninterruptedly. Their 
heights oscillate between 200 and 500 meters on the level of the sea. The dominant element 
is the savannas that present a great variety of types that you/they go from the thin and open, 
until the arbustivas and hoisted, going by the inundables with gramineous resistant to those 
conditions, where they highlight: tidelands, palms and undergrowth llaneras. Along the 
courses of water the gallery forests grow. A subdivision would recognize the western 
Plains, the central Plains, the oriental Plains and the depression of the Unare. 

Deltaic system 
The delta of the Orinoco is almost only in the world for three reasons: the bed of the 
Orinoco doesn't go centered, it lacks lagoons and it is an oceanic delta. It is divided in two 
deltas: the general, located from the left riverbank of the pipe Araguao, in northwest 
address, until the pipe Mánamo with north direction until the respective outlets in Boca 
Araguao and Flints. And the secondary one, located among the right riverbank of the pipe 
Araguao and the left of the Big River, main bed of the Orinoco in the delta. The dominant 
landscapes are muddy plains, so much marine as fluvial, with slopes that scarcely arrive to 
2%, except in the southeast of the region, where the relief is waved or broken and the 
slopes can arrive to 25%. 

South of the Orinoco 
The Guianese shield is constituted by one of the oldest geologic formations in the world. 
Here they are the mountain range of Imataca and the serranía of the same name, the plateau 
of Nuria and the area of Paragua; the valley of the river Cuyuní, where the savannas of 
Guayana, and the mountainous areas extend as The Callao. The savannas of the Caroní are 
toward the occident and of the Paragua and the valleys of the High Caura and of the 
Erebato. Toward the south is the mountain of Pacaraima whose better known portion is the 
Great Savanna, a high plain to more than 1 000 m on the valley of the river Cuyuní. In this 
area they are the tepuyes. The better known one is the Auyán-tepui of whose summit comes 
off the jump Churún - Merú or Jump Ángel, with 972 m. 

The islands 
The insular arch embraces a total of 311 islands that you/they form a parallel line to the 
coast. Most is located between 150 and 200 km to the mainland north, others as those of 
Port The Cruz is to only 2 or 3 km, while the most distant, the Island of Ave, is to 500 km 
to the north of the coast. Their floors were formed starting from igneous-metamorphic, very 
old rocks and erosionadas that appear until the surface: The Monks, The Asleep ones, The 
Orchila, The Blanquilla, The Siblings, The Friars and The Witness. There are other islands, 
as the archipelago of The Ave and partially The Orchila and The Blanquilla where the 
rocky basement is completely covered for a thick calcareous layer, fruit of the growth and 
the erosion of old coralline reefs. 

NATURAL RESOURCES 

Petroleum 
The potential of hydrocarbons is so high that if the reservations were used as only energy 
source to supply the internal consumption, would have a 150 year-old duration, considering 
that the consumption averages yearly of that lapse was double the current one. The proven 
reservations of petroleum overcome the 64 000 million barrels. Venezuela is the sixth 
country with bigger reservations proven in the world. The current production is located in 
about 2 700 000 daily barrels, occupying the seventh place like world producer. One of the 
biggest reservations of heavy and extra heavy petroleum is in the bituminous strip of the 
Orinoco, with 51% of the world total. The one in charge of gerenciar and to administer the 
oil resources is the State through Petroleums of Venezuela (PDVSA). 

Natural gas 
Natural, associate enormous reservations of gas exist and not associated with locations of 
raw petroleum. They have been new reservations in the northeastern region, so much in the 
continent as coast out that make to already ascend those proven to 3,9 trillion cubic meters 
of natural gas. This locates Venezuela in the seventh place at world level. 

Coal 
There are considerable proven reservations and without proving of mineral coal, and the 
production goes in increase thanks to the internal and external demands. Those derived of 
the coal, coke and tar they are used in the miner-industrial complexes. The carboniferous 
energy can be used in the industrial sector, replacing partially to the petroleum. 

Resource hídrico 
Abundance of this resource exists. Annually there are about 700 million cubic meters of 
superficial waters and 22 000 million cubic meters of underground waters, being able to 
take advantage of 68% of the total of the superficial waters potentially. Near 85% of the 
total glide it corresponds to the territory located to the south of the Orinoco. 

Hydroelectricity 
The potentialities of hydroelectric resources have been estimated in 83 430 MW, equivalent 
to 2 500,00 daily barrels of petroleum. The mobilization is carried out through the plants 
summoned in the region of Guayana and of you Walk them. Their execution is competition 
of the Anonymous Company of Administration and Electric Development and the 
Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana. 

Floor 
They exist more than 34 types of different agricultural vocation. They go from alluvial 
regosoles and grumosoles of high agricultural value; to renzinas, planosoles, gley little 
húmicos, of half agricultural value; until floors lateríticos of low quality and productivity. 
The lands of high potential are limited, while the floors of intermediate productivity are the 
most abundant. 

Mineral and non minerals 
The minerals, so much metallic as not metallic, they pass of 150. Those of more importance 
are: iron, bauxite, gold, diamond, phosphate, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, common salt, 
plaster and limestone. Big proven reservations of iron and bauxite exist. The auriferous 
locations and diamantíferos are located in Guayana, where the biggest production in the 
mining is of free use. The reservations of these minerals represent 12% of the reservations 
proven worldwide. 

Flora 
A varied vegetation exists, characterized by a complex mosaic of units florística-
fisionómicas, where they are distinguished more than 150 types of vegetation. More than 
50% of the territory it is covered with forests. However, the timber industry is highly 
dependent, with a great wooden import and pulp. 

Fauna 
It has one of the most varied biotas in the world. There are around 200 species of reptiles, 
birds and profitable mammals for different uses. The marine and submarine areas are 
abundant in alive resources (fish, shellfish and avifauna) of great value, being the industry 
of the very active fishing, so much to supply the national market as for the export. 

Population 

The society is conformed ethnically by a population mestizo (Indian, black and white), to 
which was integrated during the last century a European immigration (Portuguese and 
Italian). In the decade of the sixty a contingent of immigrants coming from Latin America 
arrived. The population from Venezuela, according to the XII General Census of 
Population and Housing 1990, belongs to 18 105 265 inhabitants. It exists more than half 
million of foreign residents. The populational density is of 20,1 hab/km2, lightly inferior to 
that of Latin America. The highest populational density has it the Federal District with 1 
090 hab/km2, followed by Miranda, Aragua and Carabobo. The country has presented a 
high index of growth, ending up triplicating its population among 1950-81. However, in the 
last period intercensal the lowest absolute growth was presented, relative and it appraises 
yearly, originated by the economic crisis that began in the eighty. Venezuela passed of 
being a rural country to a highly urbanized nation, with 87% of the population residenciada 
in urban areas, with Caracas, Maracaibo, Maracay, Valencia and Barquisimeto like the 
main cities. 

TRADITIONS 

Music 
The musical traditions associate to different activities. Cooing songs exist and of beat to 
sleep to the children; songs of task during the works of pillar corn, to spur on, to milk, or to 
gather coffee; galerón and malagueña to accompany the cross wakes; Christmas gifts, 
carols and bagpipes in the Christmas rites; drum blows to celebrate San Juan or San Benito; 
and joropo, waltz, jest, meringue, pole, bambuco and gallant songs to have a good time and 
to dance. The musical goods vary from a region to another. The joropo is the form musical 
traditional Venezuelan. It is interpreted in the whole country and it possesses own attributes 
according to the region: joropo llanero, power station and oriental; although also in the 
region of Guayana, the center-western one and in you Walk them it is given with 
characteristic specific. Additionally it is necessary to mention the galerón in Lara, in east 
and in you Walk them. The pole in Falcon, Anzoátegui, Sucre and New Esparta. The iota in 
east. The malagueña in Monagas, Anzoátegui and in general in the Venezuelan east. The 
waltz in you Walk them and in center occident. The meringue in Caracas, Lara and 
Cumaná. The central fulía in Miranda, Federal District and Aragua; the oriental fulía in 
Anzoátegui, Monagas, New Esparta and Sucre. The polka in Lara, Barinas, Sucre, Trujillo, 
Táchira, Hurry and Bolivar. The bambuco in Táchira, Merida, Trujillo, Lara, Zulia, Federal 
District and Vargas. The furro bagpipe and of tambora in the Zulia. The calipso in Bolivar. 
And the tamunangue in Lara. 

Gastronomy 
Three plates define the unit of the Venezuelan cuisine: the round maize loaf and the 
pavilion that waste away the whole year, and the hallaca, heart of the navidad. The round 
maize loaf, made with the help of corn, is used as companion or I eat strong plate. The 
pavilion is the one registered national and it is compound for head meat, black caraotas, 
white rice and banana slice. The hallaca is a combination of a stew elaborated with diverse 
types of meats, olives, capers and different agreement dressings with the region that 
you/they stuff a mass of corn which is cooked wrapped in banana leaves. To supplement 
the national fan the sancochos they should be mentioned or boiled, and the casabe. 
A great variety of regional foods exists, with plates like: the pisca and the ajiceros in you 
Walk them. The head pisillos, chigüire or deer, as well as the hand cheese in the region of 
the Plains. The hen pelao and the merey nougat in Guayana. The rooster olleta in Lara and 
in Caracas. The prepared male goat in their most diverse forms in Falcon. The corbullón of 
mere in the Oriental Costa. The cachapas in the Central Region. And the mojito in coconut 
and the eggs chimbos in the Zulia. Not less important it is the presence of drinks, as the 
coffee and the chocolate; besides alcoholic drinks that have won fame in the world, as the 
rums, the beers and, more recently, the wines. 

Emblems on the national table
Pabellón: even tough this dish originated in Caracas, it is the national dish. The dish is made up of 
black beans; white rice; and fried, stuffed meat. If the pabellón is accompanied with fried plan-tains 
cut into slices, it is called "pabellón con baranda".

Cassava bread: this Venezuelan "bread" is today one of the most popular across the country. It is 
made with sour cassava, which undergoes a process of stuffing and pressing in a Sebucán to extract 
the yare (a mortal poison with a high amount of hydrocyanic acid).

Hallaca: is the typical Christmas dish. It varies according to the region where it is prepared. 
InCaracas, hallacas have more ingredients; in the Andes, they contain chickpeas and tomatoes 
without seeds; in the plains, they are similar to the ones prepared in Caracas but contain less 
ingredients. This traditional dish is made with corn-meal, several types of meat (beef, pork and 
chicken), and diverse ingredients that are used to season and decorate them. Everything is wrapped 
in plantain leaves.

Cachapa: it is a round omelet made with ground sweet corn, milk, sugar, and salt. A variation of 
this dish is cachapa de hoja, which is made with the same ingredients but is not cooked on a budare 
but wrapped in corn leaves (which is later boiled).

Mondongo: it is well known that Venezuelan mondongo is a version of Spanish callos or tripas. In 
the center of Venezuela as well as in other parts of the country, it is made with cows feet and, 
sometimes, with tripe. In the Eastern part of the country the dish is made
with tripe, offal , and pieces of meat.
Empanadas: they are very similar to bollos, but fried. Empanadas are made with cornmeal and can 
be stuf-fed with anything, from cheese to baby shark .

Popular parties Festividades 
Following a calendar marked by the Catholic calendar and the cycles of the sun, they are 
practiced numerous parties. They highlight, in December, the Lunatics and Locainas of the 
Day of the Innocent Saints (mainly in occident), as well as San Benito's Parties in the 
populations Afro-American from the Oriental Costa of the lake of Maracaibo and in 
Trujillo. In January, the Boy's Paradura, the Slope of the Kings and the Pilgrimage of the 
Shepherds, in you Walk them. In February, The Candlemas's Vassals in you Walk them, 
and the parties of Carnival, especially in The Callao, Guayana, Sucre and New Esparta. In 
May, the Wakes of Cruz taken place in the central region and in east. In June, the Dancing 
Devils for Corpus Christi and San Juan's Parties in the populations Afro-American of 
Yaracuy, Miranda, Aragua and Federal District, as well as the Tamunangue in Lara and San 
Pedro's Spree in Miranda. They highlight different manifestations of indigenous origin as 
the Dance of the Turas, carried out between June and October in Falcon and Lara, and the 
Mare Mare and the Akatombo in Anzoátegui. Other important celebrations are the Fairs 
and Parties of some cities, as the Fair of San Sebastián (January) in San Cristobal; the Fair 
of the Sun (February) in Merida; the Divine Shepherdess's Fair (January) in Lara, and the 
Fair of the Chinese (November) in Maracaibo. 

Craft 
As many forms of handmade production as regions exist there is in the country. The 
traditional techniques of pottery, tejeduría, esterería, cestería, carpentry, talabartería, 
handiworks and popular art have stayed unalterable. The hands of skillful artisans that 
transform the mud, the vegetable fiber or the wood make of Venezuela a nation of big 
artists without school, because in most of the cases the abilities have been transmitted 
thanks to the daily occupation. Guide it is known by their cestería and the production of 
cloth dolls, especially in Anzoátegui and Sucre. The Zulia highlights for the ethnos 
peasant's influence and wayú, with its fabrics of hammocks and its multicolored tapestries. 
The Andean states and Lara, for the sizes in wood of religious figures and civil eminent 
persons, as well as for the utilitarian and ornamental ceramic. The central region is 
characterized by the production of masks of Dancing Devils and for the elaboration of 
percussion instruments (drums of different types). The diverse indigenous ethnoses are 
known by its cestería, their sizes in wood of figures of animals, their hammocks, their 
masks and their ritual crowns. 

National Symbols 

National Ave 
The Turpial 
(Icterus icterus) 
National Ave was declared May 23 1958. It is recognized by their colors yellow-orange in 
the whole body, except the head and the wings that are black with white parts. has a small 
blue stain around the eyes. lives in solitary or in even in warm places. 

National flower 
The Orchid Flower of May" 
(Cattleya mossiae) 
National Flower was declared May 23 1951. Their scientific name remembers to William 
Cattley who in 1818 it cultivated the first bulbs in England, through some species sent from 
Brazil. The botanical John Lindley who gave him his name was. In 1839 the Cattleya 
mossiae was found in Venezuela. 

National tree 
The Araguaney 
(Tabebuia chrysantha) 
National tree was declared May 29 1948. Their scientific name Tabebuia is of indigenous 
origin and Chrysantha is derived of the Greek words that mean voice of gold". it is known 
with the names of Acapro, Curarí, Araguán or Cañada, Yellow Flower and Puy. 

Tourism 
All, from the first visitor that Venezuela stepped (Christopher Columbus), until the last one 
that should be arriving at this time at some of our ports or airports, they have gotten in this 
earth an universe of indescribable marvels. All those that have decided to come closer to 
Venezuela have been attracted it by their natural beauties (that go beyond their wives). 
 is it that this country is privileged, in what can another part of the world leave to the 
forest, to the plain, to the beach or the mountain in only question of hours? Many options 
exist to enjoy, great part of them protected under the figure of national parks and natural 
monuments to preserve this way the sources of water, the pure air, the vegetable lungs, the 
species in extinction danger and the indigenous ethnoses. 

 

Special
Since approximately ten years ago, word began to spreadabout Venezuela's
excellent potential for adventure tourism, bird watching, and combination of tourism, 
nature, and health. Venezuela bird watching Venezuela with backpack and 4x4
Health Tourism

Venezuela bird watching
It is no secret that Venezuela houses an extraordinary land of the most varied landscapes. 
But the wonders are not only limited to its flora. The country's fauna, particularly its bird 
life, is considered to be among the most attractive in the world, thus this is a very popular 
destination for local and foreign ornithologists, and even the most de-manding bird 
watchers Between the Rio Grande, in Mexico, and to Alaska there are around 700 bird 
species. In Venezuela alone, this piece of land that opens its doors to the Caribbean, there 
are 1,346 species, that is twice as many as in North America and about 44% of
all birds in South America. This fact gives us an idea of the richness of Venezuela's bird 
population and explains why bird watching is a hobby that is be-coming more and more 
popular in our country and abroad.

The most interesting thing for both experts and beginners is that they can travel from 
Venezuela's plains to the Andes in the same day and easily spot 300 species. From the 
Gran Sabana to Sucre, from the Andes to the Delta, almost all regions in Venezuela are a 
paradise for bird lovers. It is good to know that in Venezuela bird watching is well organi-
zed thanks to the initiatives of groups, people and institutions that encourage this activity.




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